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IDINKUGU HAMBALYEYNAYA BISHA BARAKEYSAN EE RAMADAAN .
Dhamaan umada islaamka gaar Soomalida dalka iyo dibadiisaba ku nool, waxaan
hawada u soo marineynaa Farxad ku idil bisha barakeysan ee Ramadaaan.
Waxaan Dhamaan Ummadda soomaaliyeed ka rajeyneynaa iney ka tanaasulaan
Colaada 15 ka sanno soo socotay oo naf iyo maalba ku dhamaaday. waxaana
ka codsaneynaa in Soomaalida garbaha ay is qabsadaan Alahaoodana u Towba
keenaan, kana faa ideystaan bishan barakeysan ee ramadaan. Waxaana Illaahey
Ka baryeynaa in colaada qotada dheeraatay illaahey naga qaado inooguna
bedelo Nabad iyo Barwaaqo
Mohamed Deeq Alfa
by Ishaq Zahid from SRI QP: 1994/002
the month of Ramadan is compulsory on every Muslim adult. The Arabic word
sawm is used for fasting. The word sawm (plural siyam) literally means
'to refrain', but as an Islamic term, it means refraining from food, drinks
and sexual activity from dawn to sunset. Allah says in the Quran, in Surah
'O you who believe,
siyam is prescribed on you as it was prescribed to those before you so
that you may become self-restrained.'
The importance of Siyam in Ramadan
is clearly expressed in several sayings of the Prophet(S.A.W.). It is reported
by Abu Hurairah that the Prophet said:
'He who fasts
during Ramadan with faith and seeks his reward from Allah will have his
past sins forgiven; he who prays during the night in Ramadan with faith
and seeks his reward from Allah will have his past sins forgiven; and
he who passes Lailat al- Qadr in prayer with faith and seeks his reward
from Allah will have his past sins forgiven.'
Fasting in Ramadan is practiced by
Muslims all over the world. The most significant aspect of Siyam is the
development of Allah-consciousness (Taqwa) in the heart and the soul of
a fasting Muslim. One must abstain from immoral behavior and attitude as
well. Refraining from food and such is essential during fast but it is not
sufficient. The Prophet of Allah is reported to have said:
(Bukhari and Muslim)
'If one does
not abandon falsehood in words and deeds, Allah has no need for his abandoning
of his food and drink.'
WHO IS EXEMPT
FROM SAWM? Fasting is mandatory on every Muslim who is sane, adult,
able and resident. The following exemptions apply:
- the insane;
- children who are not adolescent
- the elderly and chronically ill
for whom fasting is unreasonably strenuous; Such persons are required
to feed at least one poor person every day in Ramadan for which he or
she has missed fasting.
- pregnant women and nursing may
postpone the fasting at a later time;
- the ill and the travellers can
also defer their fasting.
Allah says in the Qur'an, Surah Al-Baqara:
anyone is ill, or on a journey, the prescribed period should be made
up by days later. Allah intends every facility for you; He does not
want to put you to difficulties.'
- Women during the period of menstruation
or of postchildbirth confinement. Fasting during these periods is forbidden
and should be made up later, a day for a day.
OF SAWM: Fasting starts everyday in Ramadan at the break of dawn, which
is also the start of the Salatul Fajr time. Fasting ends at sunset or with
the call of Salatul Maghrib.
FASTING: The validity of fasting depends on the following:
The things which invalidate fast are
of two kinds. The first one requires Qada (only making up missed days),
the other one not only requires Qada but also Kaffarah(a penalty). The following
are the things that require Qada only:
- Abstaining from food, liquids
and sexual activity from dawn to sunset.
- The intention to fast must be
made every day before dawn. The intention(niyyah) may be made during
night before going to sleep or it can also be made at the time of Suhoor
before dawn. Suhoor is eating before fasting. It should be as close
to Fajr time as possible. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) says:
Suhoor, for there is blessing in Suhoor.'(Bukhari, Muslim)
It is desirable to break the fast
as soon as possible after sunset. Breaking the fast with dates or water
is a tradition of the Prophet. Following is one of the Du'a for breaking
Allahumma laka sumtu wa
'ala ridhqika aftartu (O Allah! For You did I fast and with Your bounties
did I break the fast.)
Things that not only require Qada but
also Kaffarah are the following:
- Eating or drinking intentionally.
This includes non-nourishing items taken by mouth.
- Deliberately causing oneself
to throw up.
- The beginning of menstruation
or post-childbirth bleeding even in the last moment before sunset.
- Ejaculation for reasons other
than sexual intercourse.
- Intending to break the fast before
sunset even if one changes his mind, since intention is one of the pre-requisites
of the validity of fasting.
- Eating, drinking or having intercourse
after dawn on the mistaken assumption that it is not dawn yet. Similarly,
engaging in these acts before Maghrib on the mistaken assumption that
it is already sunset.
Sexual intercourse during fasting(dawn to dusk). The penalty is to fast
an additional period of 60 continuous days. If one is not able to do so
then he must feed sixty poor people-one average meal each. Before the days
of the Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.), slavery was a common practice in the Arab
world. Islam eliminated slavery from the society in a very short period
of time. A useful approach was to allow people free a slave as a charity
or as a penalty for a sin. Thus during the time of the Prophet(S.A.W.),
setting a slave free was the penalty one must pay as a kaffarah, if he or
she had a slave. What
does not break the fast:
Breaking of fast under exceptional
conditions: Muslims are permitted to break the ordained fast of
Ramadan when there is danger to their health. In this situation a Muslim
should make up his fast later at any other time of the year.
- If anyone forgets that he is
fasting and eats or drinks, he should complete his fast, for it is only
Allah who has fed him and given him drink.(A Hadith from Muslim).
- Unintentional vomiting.
- Swallowing things which are not
possible to avoid, such as one's saliva, street dust, smoke, etc.
- Brushing the teeth.
- Injection or intra-venous which
is solely medical and not nutritional.